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Neurology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. To be specific, neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central,peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.
A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research, and clinical trials, as well as basic research and translational research. While neurology is a non-surgical specialty, its corresponding surgical specialty is neurosurgery. Neurology, being a branch of medicine, differs from neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system in all its aspects.
During a neurological examination, the neurologist reviews the patient's health history with special attention to the current condition. The patient then takes a neurological exam. Typically, the exam tests mental status, function of the cranial nerves (including vision), strength, coordination, reflexes, and sensation. This information helps the neurologist determine whether the problem exists in the nervous system and the clinical localization. Localization of the pathology is the key process by which neurologists develop their differential diagnosis. Further tests may be needed to confirm a diagnosis and ultimately guide therapy and appropriate management.
Although mental illnesses are believed by some to be neurological disorders affecting the central nervous system, traditionally they are classified separately, and treated by psychiatrists Neurological diseases often have psychiatric manifestations, such as post-stroke depression, depression and dementia associated withParkinson's disease, mood and cognitive dysfunctions in Alzheimer s disease and Huntington disease, to name a few. Hence, there is not always a sharp distinction between neurology and psychiatry on a biological basis.